第五週時間表 Topic #2: 语言比较: 称呼与方言 (文化)
課程題目與目標 Lesson Topic & Goals:
- Learn about the linguistic gap created by the political division of Taiwan and the PRC;
- Understand some of the differences among China’s dialects, and be familiar with the linguistic map;
- Compare different words, pronunciations and usages between the Mandarin spoken in PRC and Taiwan.
HW to be completed before Wednesday’s class on 2/20:
1. 閱讀功課: [新聞]台媒談兩岸語言差異，對大陸人說窩心會遭白眼
(From http://news.ifeng.com/taiwan/3/200912/1203_353_1460222.shtml) (accessed at on 9/19/2010)
細讀 (做好生詞表和拼音對照): Complete the first FOUR paragraphs “兩岸民眾交流日益頻繁，…… “朋友”還可能隱含男女朋友的意思。”Please do a close reading; annotate the text and provide Pinyin pronunciation; be able to use your words to re-tell the key points; work on a good English translation.
1. Discussion (20 min.): 讨论學生对文章的了解 (preparation/participation – graded)
2. Group work (10 min.): 分组讨论问题 – 你可以提出一个你们对两岸语言差异的看法吗？
Group 1: Eddie, Jamie, Calvin & Jack
Group 2: Eric, Taili, Erica & Maggie
Group 3: Sam, Angelica, Shelby & Mia
3. Homework Assignment:
a. Preapre for Quiz #3: Friday (2/22) – Review 歷史小知識 – Study the corrected two history trivia you posted under Week #3 Comments. Learn to write them out in characters.
b. 閱讀功課: [新聞]台媒談兩岸語言差異，對大陸人說窩心會遭白眼 (From http://news.ifeng.com/taiwan/3/200912/1203_353_1460222.shtml) (accessed at on 9/19/2010) 細讀 (做好生詞表和拼音對照): Complete the rest of the article: “除了稱謂之外，…… “這個人究竟在說什麼”。”Please do a close reading; annotate the text and provide Pinyin pronunciation; be able to use your words to re-tell the key points; work on a good English translation.
台灣: “小姐”| “阿姨”| “親愛的”“寶貝”| “窩心”| “可愛”| “批評”“檢討”
中國: “小姐”| “阿姨”| “親愛的”“寶貝”| “窩心”| “可愛”| “批評”“檢討”
In-class Task : Go to the web and see if you can find one blogger comment on –
HW to be completed before Week #6 Monday’s Class :
1. 翻譯練習: Translate the following into English (good enough to be posted):
(Posted individually by Monday’s class) (graded)
2. Voicethread Project: Reply to Prof. Perry’s invitation and set up your own voicethread account. Complete the project: (by Friday 3/1 before class)
1) Revise your essay for Topic #01 based on the final corrected copy (corrections will be posted under Week #4 Comments by Sat. noon – Sun laoshi will email you if she has questions);
2) Revise your Voicethread slides that you used to present in class; add more slides with photos, text or data;
3) Comment on all slides – break your paragraphs into sections, and comment with only a couple or a few sentences at a time;
4) You need to use your entire essay (be sure to distribute your sentences to cover as many slides as possible, and don’t worry about the order of your original sentences or paragraphs);
5) Make sure your comments are relevant to the slides;
6) Once you cmpleted your Vociethread project, post your revised essay and Voicethreas URL (share link) Topic #01 Comments – (page to be created)
TO BE UPDATED – looking ahead for Week #6
1. 個人報告Individual Presentation: to be presented on Wed. (10/13) and Fri. (10/15)
1) 題目: 為了進一步了解海峽兩岸的差異，我要談談_________________________。Check
last year’s student presentation topics, click here.
2) 長度: 三段 (不超過300 字);
3) 找題目: identify a topic that you find it worth researching about for you and your classmates to further understand the differences between Taiwan and China, or you may simply want to understand a historical event (like the Chinese Civil War 1945-1949), or a current social phenomenon in Taiwan or China that has impact on both sides (i.e. Jay Chou? )
3) 要點: essay topic and key points of your first paragraph due Monday (10/4) before class (posted under Week #06 Comments); 第二段和第三段: key points of your 2nd and 3rd paragraphs due Wed. (10/6) before class; key points should be two or three full sentences that use YOUR OWN WORDS (with appropriate vocabulary) to explain what you want to say in the paragraph; a list of key vocabulary attached at the end is preferred;
4) 老師改正: revisions will be posted online by Thursday (10/7);
5) 學生改正: review feedback, continue your essay writing and finish it by filling out more details based on your key points (due Monday 10/11)
6) 用Voicethread 加照片: after you receive feedback from Prof. Perry, start searching online and choosing at least 5-10 photos that can illustrate your points-i.e. use a photo of Deng Xiaoping and talk about China’s market economy, or a photo of Mao to talk about communism;
7) 做一個Voicethread 報告: create a Voicethread slide project for your presentation (presentation schedule to be announced – either on Wed. 10/13 or Fri. 10/15).
2. Work on Topic #1 Shanghai/Taipei Voicethread Project (due next Monday 10/11)
1. 作者：非藍非綠 回复日期：2009-9-20 19:33:00
“以前大中國意識，所以演藝人員講話要求字正腔圓，（所以藝人一般都會先去上國語正音班，歌手要考歌星證）。自從李登輝的兩國論以後，台灣意識抬頭，講話不標準也沒關係，帶一點台灣腔還比較受歡迎，例如：吳念真的廣告，鄭鴻儀的口音、、” <http://bbs.city.tianya.cn/tianyacity/Content/333/27068.shtml> (accessed on 9/19/2010)
2. 《從兩岸語言習慣差異談起》 原作者﹕石咏琦 推介：馬堯海 南京教師
http://www.chinareviewnews.com 2009-07-15 14:36:03
<http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1010/2/2/6/101022692.html?coluid=123&kindid=0&docid=101022692> (accessed on 9/19/2010)
2006-2-23 14:16:00 稿件来源：南开大学
<http://www.meeting.edu.cn/webmedia/oemui/newsinfo/newsshow.asp?news_id=114&news_type_id=3> (accessed on 9/20/2010)
大陸使用簡體字；台灣使用繁體字 大陸使用漢語拼音（一種羅馬拼音）作為漢語教學和字典標註發音的標準；台灣使用注音符號（ㄅㄆㄇㄈ） 公制長度單位大陸用「米、釐米、毫米」；台灣用「公尺、公分、公釐」 大陸用公元年；台灣用民國年（雖然公元年越來越普遍） 對於西方電影名稱，大陸多半直譯；台灣多會加油添醋，如《Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl》大陸翻為《加勒比海盜：黑珍珠號的詛咒》；台灣翻為《神鬼奇航：鬼盜船魔咒》，《I, Robot》大陸翻為《我，機械人》；台灣翻為《機械公敵》 對於科技，大陸也是多半直譯；台灣比較文言，如computer大陸翻為「計算機」；台灣翻為「電腦」（雖然很多大陸人也習慣電腦），mobile phone大陸翻為「移動電話」；台灣翻為「行動電話」 標點符號的引號大陸用“”；台灣用「」（這一項大概很多人沒注意到）< 兩岸語言差異的根究> http://bbs.realchristianities.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=29925
補充英文資料：Background Reading in English for Topic #2
1. Map Links form Prof. Halsall’s Chinese Culture Page at Brooklyn College China Map Exercise | Chinese Dialect Map | Modern China – Political Map | China – Modern Population Density
2. UCLA Language Materials Project: Mandarin Language Profile
3. Pinyin Info “Dialect” and “Chinese” | What Is a Chinese “Dialect/Topolect”? Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic Terms (1991), by Professor Victor H. Mair
4. ChinaDaily.com Proud Shanghainese asked to speak Putonghua | WORD Sep 29, 2005
Evaluation for Week #5: (6% , based on total class grade)
33 thoughts on “Wk#05 (2/18-2/22)”
Translated by Yuanbo, Siyin and Sali
For example, in Taiwan women like to be called “xiaojie” because it is a glorified title for a woman. On the contrary, on the mainland, “xiaojie” is an honorific word, but it mostly refers to women working in a looked-down-upon “special industry”.
Posted by Boru, Diwen, Yujun & Jiahui
Mainland China is used to addressing someone close to them, like a friend, “dear treasured one,” (i.e. qin1ai4de and bao3bei4), but in Taiwan, it means boyfriend girlfriend or it is said between a husband and wife. “Treasured one” typically is used to refer to one’s child in Taiwan. Also, “friend” means friend in Taiwan, but in mainland China, “friend” can also imply that they are boyfriend and girlfriend.
親密 qīnmì-intimate / close
隱含 yǐnhán-to imply / to keep covered up
Posted: Jiacheng, Chunhui, Songying
文章還稱，“阿姨”在台灣是年輕人對比自己年長許多，或與父母同輩女人的稱呼；但在大陸，“阿姨”也可能指的是“家中的佣人”。The article also mentioned “a1yi2 (auntie).” In Taiwan, young people use this to refer to women who are peers with their parents or to address their elders. But in China, “a1yi2” may refer to a family servant.
指 zhi3 to imply, to refer to
对比 dui4bi4 contrast or comparison
同辈 tong2bei4 peer
称呼 cheng1hu to address as
阿姨 a1yi2 “auntie” or elder woman who is a peer with one’s parents
家种的佣人 jia1zhong1de yong4ren2 house servant
Posted by Ada, Joe and Riccardo
Internet reporter fan ling reported, exchange between mainlanders and the Taiwanese across the strait is increasing, each day more and more people are traveling across this stretch of water and interacting with people from the opposing side. But with respect to communication, the same word on one side may have a very different meaning on the other, which is a common cause of misunderstanding. For example, the Taiwan media reports that when the mainland people say, “wo xin” they need to be careful that they may be looked down upon. Taiwan’s “United Daily News” article on the 3rd (of this month) sums up some of the differences:
ada richardo joe
小組四: Emily|Ada – 第九段
At the end of the article, it says that although the two sides both speak Mandarin, but as time progresses, common words used in Taiwan and mainland China have different implications. Therefore, when people from the two sides encounter, they have to work hard to understand what they are trying to say to each other.
Group Posting by 小組二: Jack|Bo|Sophia|Kari – 第七段
Both sides also disagree on the meaning of “gan mao”. On the mainland, when a person says “gan mao” it is a positive connotation meaning “I like you” but the usage in Taiwan is the complete opposite, meaning “I’m sick of you”. “Ke’ai” is considered childish on the mainland, but in Taiwan the word is universal, it disregards age and gender.
Edmund, Taylor, Stuart
Taiwan says very “heartwarming,” referring to being considerate of other people’s needs and giving people’s hearts a warm feeling. But, “heartwarming” in China has the opposite meaning, referring to making people feel unpleasant and annoyed.
Posted by 小組三: Selina|Sarah|Joe|Erin – 第八段
In Taiwan, in order to express politeness you must know how to say “criticizing comments” But criticism in China also means to “expose and criticize” (which refers and dates back to the Cultural Revolution’s practice of self-criticism). In addition, in Taiwan people “self-criticize” every day, but in China,this “self-criticism”has a more serious connotation. .. .
Computer Technology: dian4nao3 ke1ji4 电脑科技
Generation Gap: dai4gou1 代沟
Communication: gou1tong1 沟通
To create: chuang4zao4 创造
To cause: zao4cheng2 造成
To post (on the Internet):fang4zai4wang3shang4 放在网上
Net/Internet: wang3lu4 | wang3luo4 |Ying1te4wang3 网路| 网络 | 英特网
To pass; to spread: chuan2 传
As the exchange of people across the strait becomes more frequent day by day, on both sides the number of tourists have also been gradually increasing. But on links, the same phrase can have very different meanings on both sides of the strait, and may easily lead to misunderstanding. For example, Taiwanese who say “Woxin” to mainlanders should beware of patronizing looks. An article in the United, sums it thusly:
For example, in Taiwan women like to be called “xiaojie” or “nushi” because it is seen as deferential; conversely, on the mainland, though “nushi” may be appropriate, “xiaojie” may refer to a certain “type” of working girl.
The article also states that “ayi” is used in Taiwan by young people to refer to people who are relatively older, or by people referring to someone in the same generation. On the mainland this term could also mean a household servant or maid.
In mainland custom, “Dear” or “Baby” may be used for relatively intimitate friends, but in Taiwan, “Dear” is only used between partners and married couples, and “baby” is typically only refers to small children. Even friend in Taiwan just means friend, but on the mainland this term can imply a more intimate meaning.
民眾 min2zhong4 crowds common people
交流 Jiao1liu2 exchange/Interchange
日益 ri4yi4 adv day by day
頻繁 pin2fan2 frequently/often
相互 xiang1hu4 mutually/each other
想來 xiang3lai2 comeandgo/contact/dealings
溝通 gou1tong1 links/link up
用詞 yong4ci2 wording/phrasing
解釋 jie3shi4 explain/interpret
不相同 bu4xiang1tong2 not the same
引起 yin3qi3 arouse
誤解 wu4jie3 misread/misunderstand
窩心 wo1xin1 to feel irritable without being able to express It/ to bear a silent grudge
遭 zao1 to suffer (smthng)
白眼 bai1yan3 supercilious/patronizing look
文章 wen2zhang1 article/essay
總結 zong3jie2 to summarize/conclude
尊稱 zun1cheng1 deferential/honorific
阿姨 a1yi2 aunt/auntie
傭人 yong1ren2 domestic servant
同輩 tong2bei4 of same generation
親密 qin1mi4 close/intimate
夫妻 fu1qi1 man and wife
隱含 yin3han2 imply
Communication between the peoples of Taiwan and mainland China has grown more and more frequent, as there has been increased travel between them. However, identical words can have substantially different meanings in the mainland or Taiwan. This communication often leads to misunderstandings. For example, in Taiwanese media, if a mainlander said “I’m unable to voice my frustrations,” it may sound like they were trying to be “unreasonably superior.” Taiwan’s “United Daily News” has printed 3 days worth of articles. A few points from these are summarized as follows:
For example: In Taiwan, girls are often referred to as “miss,” or “madam.” In mainland, “madam” is also used to refer to women. However, the term “miss” often refers to a working woman from “that special industry.”
The article also mentioned “a’yi (maternal aunt).” In Taiwan, this term is used by many young people respectfully refer to an elder, or a women of their parent’s generation. But in mainland, “a’yi” can also refer to the “family’s servant.”
In mainland, it is a custom to refer to dear friends as “dear” or “darling.” However, the term “dear” in Taiwan is only used between couples, married and unmarried; while “darling” is often used to refer to one’s children. The term “friend” also holds different meanings in across the strait. In Taiwan, “friend” simply means friend; but to say “friend” in mainland can imply a friends-with-benefits relationship.
因為在兩岸政治上情況的關係於是語言，用詞和口音都不一樣。比如說在台灣一個先生叫做太太” 親愛“的， 可是在大陸他們叫做一個親密的朋友親愛的。
Eddie, Jamie, Jack, Calvin的看法：
a. Many common words used by peoples in Taiwan and mainland hold very different meanings respectively.
b. Differences in the meanings of commonly used words and phrases developed in the wake of changing times.
c. Misunderstanding could arise in communication due to the difference in use of language.
d. The differences between commonly used speech and Mandarin arose from the differences between Taiwan and mainland China’s governments and society.
e. Peoples from across the strait have exchanged their cultures and their economies with each other.
f. There are 7 main dialects in China. However, in every province and every place these dialects are different.
g. Only in comparing the pronunciations and uses of common words across the strait can one realize that when a Taiwanese and mainlander express their ideas, they must be careful.
Taiwanese media speaks out about the difference in language with the mainland
Around the world more people are starting to report more frequently about both sides of the story, mainland China and Taiwan are increasing in their dealings with each other. However, in communicating, their wording and phrasing is not necessarily the same, therefore it is easy to have misunderstandings. For instance, if the Taiwanese media says woxin then you want to be careful because you will get a supercilious look. Three Taiwanese articles…
For example, in Taiwan, women like to be called 小姐， or nushi女士. Is addressed differently than the mainland. Nushi is okay however, 小姐 may allude to a certain type of specific female work.
Another example is 阿姨ayi in Taiwan means an older female who is a peer to your parents for a younger person but in mainland china it can mean a family’s servant.
The mainland Chinese habit(xiguan) to call a close friend qinai(beloved) or baby is unlike Taiwan where it is only towards a relationship or among(zhijian) a married couple(fuqi). Baby is only towards one’s child. In Taiwan “friend” only means friend but on the mainland “friend” could have a hidden(yinhan) meaning.
In addition to the different forms of addressing someone, adjectives also have different meanings.
Taiwan is very “woxin”, and allows someone to have a warm feeling; however, in mainland china it is quite the contrary, “woxin” has a meaning that is unpleasant and is very easy to annoy.
The word “ganmao” also has a different meaning. On the Mainland, if you dislike someone, you don’t want to be “ganmao” (catch a cold from them sort of saying?) However, Taiwan’s rule is completely opposite. “ke ai” also has a cute childish meaning in Mainland China; however in Taiwan, “ke ai” is a very common term and can be said to a range of people of different ages and sex.
In Taiwan, in order to politely express something for someone you must show respect when using “pipingzhijiao”(constructive criticism). However, “piping” on the mainland also means to settle an account. In addition, all Taiwanese people jiantao(self-criticize), in Mainland China jiantao has a more severe meaning of self-criticism.
The article concludes with, although both Mainland China and Taiwan speak Mandarin, following the changing times, Taiwan and Mainland China’s idioms/slang will have different implications and meanings. Therefore, when both populations meet, they should be careful in their vocabulary so that they can understand each other and not be in the situation of “what did this person just say?”
Huanqiu环球(around the world)
Xianghu 相互 each other
Wanglai 往来 dealings.
Yongci 用词 phrasing
Jieshi 解释 explain
Wujie 误解misunderstanding Zuncheng尊称 address differently Tezhong特种special type Hangye行业business industry Tongbei同辈peer 佣人servant 方言fangyan dialects
shuangfang 双方 Dabuxiangtong 大不相同 substantially different 形容词xingrongci(adjective) Fanyi 翻译opposite/contrary Buyukuai不愉快unpleasant Naoxin闹心annoyed Taoyan讨厌dislike
Xiangfan相反opposite Faze 法则 rule Qingsuan清算settle an account Zhize指责criticize Jiantao检讨self-criticize Suizhe随着following Xiguanyongyu习惯用语slang
Jack and Calvin
Taili and Shelby
A) People on both sides of the strait often have different interpretations to many phrases.
B) In pace with changing times, some phrases may have developed different connotations.
C) Because of differences in language there may arise some misunderstandings in cross-straits exchanges.
D) The differences between the Mainland and Taiwanese forms of Mandarin are due to their dissilmilar political systems and societies.
E) Citizens on both sides of the strait want economic and cultural exchange.
F) China has seven main dialects, but these dialects also have many differences on the provincial and district levels respectively.
G) Only when comparing the differences between pronunciation and usage across the strait can you understand why Taiwanese and Mainlanders are cautious when interacting with each other.
a. The people of Taiwan and Mainland China often use similar words and phrases that have different meanings.
b. After the transformative events of the era, the meanings of some their idiomatic expressions became dissimilar.
c. Because of these differences in language, misunderstandings often arise when the two sides communicate with each other.
d. The differences between the Mandarin of Taiwan and the Mandarin used in Mainland China are the result of the dissimilarity of the two nation’s political and societal institutions.
e. The people of Taiwan and Mainland China connect with each other in cultural and economic circumstances.
f. In China, there are seven thousand words, but they are used and pronounced differently across China’s many provinces and districts.
g. Once you have compared the numerous differences between Taiwan and Mainland China’s phrases, pronunciation and usage, then you will understand why people from Taiwan and the Mainland must take care when talking with one another.
a. On both sides of the populace, there are many different phrases and words that often don’t have the same meanings.
b. Along with the period of changes, some idioms and slangs developed with different meanings.
c. Because of language differences, as a result there is likely to be misunderstandings.
d. The difference between mandarin and the Chinese language is because both political sides and societal systems are different.
e. Both sides of the people’s culture and economy, had an exchange at the summer capital.(?)
f. In China there are seven dialects, however different dialects from different regions have many differences.
g. Compared to Taiwan and Mainland China’s vocabulary pronunciation and usage differences, people should know why they ought to be careful when a Taiwanese and Mainland Chinese person communicate.
February 25, 2013 Translations
Taiwanese and Chinese people both have many uses of words that often have different explanations.
Following the changes of the era, some idiomatic expressions could have developed to have different connotations.
Because of the differences in language, communication can give rise to misunderstandings.
The differences between mainland Chinese and Taiwanese Chinese are caused by the politics and societal systems on the two shores are different.
Taiwanese and Chinese people exchange both culture and economics.
In China there are seven major dialects, but in every province and every district different dialects also have many differences.
After comparing many of the differences in wording, pronunciation, and usage in China and Taiwan, only now can we understand why Taiwanese and mainlanders must take care when communicating.
A. The phrasing many people from Taiwan and many people from the mainland use frequently have different explanations.
B. Along with the change of era, a few idioms perhaps develop out of different connotations
C. Because of the discrepancies within language, a result is that communicating might lead to misunderstanding.
D. The differences with Putonghua and Mandarin are because of the differing political and societal systems.
E. People from both coasts have cultural and political interactions with Shengdu
F. The Chinese government has 7 different dialects, but different dialects at every province, every district, and a lot of differences between them
G. Comparatively a lot of pronunciation and phrasing is different between Taiwan and the mainland, this is why Taiwanese people and people from the mainland have to be careful when communicating.
a. The populations of Taiwan and mainland China often have different meanings for many words.
b. The meanings of certain idioms may have changed along with the changes of the times.
c. The differences in language can lead to miscommunication and misunderstandings.
d. The differences between mainland Mandarin and Taiwanese Mandarin can be attributed to the differences in the social and political systems.
e. The people of Taiwan and the mainland interact culturally and economically.
f. China has seven big dialects, but these differ greatly between provinces and districts.
g. Once you compare the differences in meaning and pronunciation of many words in Taiwan and in mainland China, you will understand why it is important for the two sides to be careful when communicating.
a. The population in China and Taiwan have a lot of vocabulary that often have different explanations.
b. Along with changes in time periods, some accustomed language may have developed into different meanings.
c. Because of language differences, communication could give rise to misunderstandings.
d. The difference between Mandarin and Chinese are because of the differences between the creation of the two sides’ political and societal systems.
e. The people in Taiwan and China have a lot of exchanging in terms of culture and economics.
f. In China there are seven main dialects, but different dialects in each province and area have a lot of differences.
g. After comparing a lot of the pronunciation of vocabulary and grammar differences between Taiwan and China, you should now know why Taiwanese and Chinese people must be careful when communicating.
a. Mainland China and Taiwan often have many different wording explanations.
b. Along with changes of periods, there are a few idioms that have developed differently in meaning.
c. Because of language differences, there can be misunderstanding when communicating.
d. The differences between Mainland Chinese and Taiwanese politics and society cause a difference between Mandarin Chinese and Chinese (in the context of the Nationalist Government).
e. Mainland Chinese and Taiwanese culture and economy have interactions.
f. There are seven main dialects in China. However, dialects in each province also has a lot of differences.
g. By comparing differences between Chinese and Taiwanese phrasing pronunciation and usage, we can understand why Taiwanese people and Mainland China people must be careful when communicating.